Snells Law, Refraction And Reflection Of Ultrasonic Waves

Like light, when an incident ultrasonic wave encounters an interface to an adjacent material of a different velocity, at an angle other than normal to the surface, then both reflected and refracted waves are produced.

Understanding refraction and how ultrasonic energy is refracted is especially important when using angle probes or the immersion technique. It is also the foundation formula behind the calculations used to determine a materials first and second critical angles.

First Critical Angle

Before the angle of incidence reaches the first critical angle, both longitudinal and shear waves exist in the part being inspected. The first critical angle is said to have been reached when the longitudinal wave no longer exists within the part, that is, when the longitudinal wave is refracted to greater or equal than 90, leaving only a shear wave remaining in the part.

Second Critical Angle

The second critical angle occurs when the angle of incidence is at such an angle that the remaing shear wave within the part is refracted out of the part. At this angle, when the refracted shear wave is at 90 a surface wave is created on the part surface


The relationship between the angle of the incident and refracted sound waves is descibed by the following formula:

Sin(A1)/V1 = Sin(A2)/V2


A1 = The incident sound wave angle in degrees
V1 = The acoustic velocity of the incident material in metres per second
A2 = The refracted sound wave angle in degrees
V2 = The acoustic velocity of the refracted material in metres per second

By simple arrangment the formula may be changed to find any one of the values, provided that the other three unknown values are supplied.

E.g. To find the refracted angle, given the incident angle and velocity and the refracted material velocity the equation is rearranged as below:

V2 * (Sin(A1)/V1) = Sin(A2)

Getting the inverse of the answer, that is the inverse of Sin(A2) will return the angle in degrees of the refracted angle.

If this all seems a bit too hard, but your desperate for an instant answer then visit for the free online calculator!

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Importance Of Offshore Banking

The use of offshore banking is no longer disreputable because the policies are now strictly regulated. Standard bank offshore services may also be ideal for businesspeople and expatriates who usually have to make transactions between two countries. However, offshore banking may not be a viable option for people who have filed for bankruptcy or those who have a tainted credit history.
One of the usual alternatives are offshore bank accounts in Jersey because this area is believed to be one of the most secure locations for such transactions. This is due to its stable local economy and political structure. Also, the Banking Business Law of 1991 is charged with regulating a Jersey offshore bank account. In Jersey, there are hundreds of investment, fund management, and banking institutions. This provides a person with a wide range of entities to choose from, which permit him to opt for the best offshore banking service suitable to his needs. One way to check if the provider is reputable is to make sure that it is regulated by the Jersey Financial Services Commission (JSC). You can verify that a provider is regulated by JSC by checking the list published on the JSC website.
Offshore banking accounts have several advantages over local bank accounts, especially for expatriates. The primary advantage is that anywhere they are, they can easily deposit or withdraw money using these accounts. Another benefit offered by offshore banking is you do not have to transfer your money to your home country or to an onshore bank, for whatever your reasons.
Business men and women who need to work in several countries may also find that offshore bank accounts are ideal for their lifestyle. Offshore accounts may also offer better privacy and security than onshore bank accounts. With offshore banking, it is also easier to handle different currencies. To demonstrate, you may get your pay in a certain currency, deposit it in your pension in another kind of currency, and then remit some money to your home country in your own currency.
The reduction of taxes is another significant benefit of an offshore account. To illustrate, if your home country does not tax foreign income unless you send it home, then it would be best to keep your funds in an offshore account. Offshore banking services provided by a reputable bank may also be more secure than keeping your funds in a local bank onshore. Lastly, an offshore account may provide you with higher interest rates compared to a small onshore bank.

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Important Features Of Free License Plate Reverse Lookup

Free license plate reverse lookup is a kind of service where you are allowed to search online for information regarding the ownership of a certain vehicle. This system is similar to search engines, and the only difference lies on the purpose of searching. In search engines, you normally look for subjects of general interest; here, you are looking for the owner of a certain vehicle based on the license plate number.

A free license plate reverse lookup involves searching on the list of license plate numbers contained in an available database for details concerning the ownership of a vehicle. However, in common standard directories, you normally search for the license plate number of a person based on his name while under this system, you search for the information of the car owner based on the license plate number.

This type of directory done on a reverse manner of searching is frequently being used by emergency services, private investigators and law enforcement authorities. Some of these available directories involve public and private access services. There are still many people who are unaware that this tracking method is available thats why they seek the services of a private investigator in pursuing hit-and-run cases.

Searching for free license plate reverse lookup online is the easiest, fastest, and most convenient method in finding your needed information regarding ownership of a car based on the license plate number. If you have an internet connection and a plate number ready, you can immediately begin your search and have the result in a few seconds.

First, get the license plate number that you want to investigate ready. Then, log-on to the directory offering this kind of service. Type the plate number in the search box and press the search button. The system will work immediately and search for the information you require from a database. After a few seconds, it will release the information on the screen based on the match that has been found.

You now have the option to copy or print the information that you need. Using this search method can help you make some savings in time and money. Some people who are not aware of this tracking system opt for more expensive ways of pursuing the car owner by hiring private investigators or online professional investigators.

When you want to buy a used car, you can use the services of free license plate reverse lookup to know important details about the owner for legal purposes.

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Spy Secret Techniques And Spy Equipment For Everyday People

We all have seen spy movies that led to us having dreams about being spies involved in all sorts of international conflicts. Nowadays, all sorts of spy equipment and spy secret techniques are readily available for anyone wanting to have a little fun. But there is one thing you should know, while poking around and spying on an office building across the street may be loads of fun, it is also highly illegal, and could lead to serious trouble with the law. Spy equipment and spy secret techniques can be used, however, by employers in order to check that those working for them arent stealing or misbehaving whilst working. This is a good example for a legitimate reason for using spy secret techniques and spy equipment.

Spy secret techniques are numerous, and spy equipment comes in every shape, size and type, depending on the uses you have for it. For example, if you would like to keep an eye on your babysitter, because you are suspecting something, then a miniature camera hidden inside an ordinary looking wall clock may be the perfect choice for you. With the progresses in science being so spectacular in recent years, spy equipment and spy secret techniques have really been improved tremendously, and miniature cameras, for example, can now be fit in an ordinary jacket button. However, spy equipment and spy secret techniques are not intended soli for surveillance, but for home protection, auto protection, and so on. These are called diversion spy equipment, and the most common form in which we find them is the safe. Hidden wall safes, key protections, and other ordinary looking items are great for hiding documents, cash jewelry, etc.

The most commonly used spy secret devices and spy equipment, besides miniature video cameras, are phone tap alarms. Mainly used by large corporations and successful companies, they provide a good protection against the competition or others that may be interested in hearing conversations. Such spy equipment notifies the owner if there is a phone tap on their phone line.

The most important steps you need to take before even considering to use spy secret techniques or buying spy equipment is to carefully read all your local laws regarding privacy, so you make sure that you wont get into any serious trouble for trying to protect yourself or have a little fun. Nowadays, we have spy secret computer programs that record the computer screen, so everything that the user does, and websites he visits, and so on. In such a case, the employer has to notify the worker that he is being monitored for efficiency, or whatever reason they like, but a notification is imperative. It is the same case with surveillance cameras, microphones, and other spy equipment.

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Gm Is Recalling 10,179 Buick Lacrosse And Cadillac Srx Vehicles Over Heating, Ventilation And Air Conditioning Issues

General Motors Co is recalling its newer Buick Lacrosse and Cadillac SRX vehicles. The recall is over a software defect that could create potential problems with the heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in the vehicles. In the MY 2011 Buick LaCrosse and Cadillac SRX vehicles, the software in the electronic climate control (ECC) module may disable the ability to adjust the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system settings. Consequently, the driver will be unable to control the heating, cooling, and ventilation of his/her vehicle.

According to General Motors Co:

* 10,179 vehicles for the model year 2011 were affected by the recall
* These vehicles showed problems resulting from a faulty defrost system
* The faulty defrost prevented clearing the windshield when the defrosters stopped working
* Software in the electronic climate control modules in the said vehicles may prevent the driver from controlling the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
* On the road the flaw can hamper visibility and increase the risk of a crash by keeping the defogging and defrosting systems from properly clearing the windshield

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the said vehicles are recalled as they failed to fulfill the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety standard no. 103, windshield defrosting and defogging systems.

According to the federal regulators:

* The problem in the climate control electronics module would disable control of the whole climate control system
* The disabled control in turn will lead to a possible loss of window defrost/defog capability
* Loss of window defrost/defog capability in a vehicle is a gross violation of federal safety rules on driver visibility

Meanwhile, General Motors has assured that there have been no untoward incidents or accidents arising from the problem so far. Actually, the defect in the climate control electronics module was discovered in an internal test when working on a new version of the software, but not when the vehicle was on the road, by the consumer.
As the potential fault lies with the software and not with the components themselves, dealers will carry out the necessary upgrades and recalibration on the modules with the problem.

The recall is expected to begin on or before the 11th of March. Notifications to owners of the affected vehicles will be sent and technicians at the dealership will reprogram the module free of cost to the consumer.

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How To Sell Your Classroom Materials And Make A Bundle

In most industries, youd get in serious trouble with the law if you started selling off your office supplies and corporate materials. After all, those things belong to the company. In schools across the nation, things are very different. Teachers own a good portion of their classroom supplies because they had to buy them with their own money. Its such a well-known phenomenon that there are tax credits specifically for educators who have receipts for their purchases. While its tempting to wax poetic about how unfair it is to have to buy your own supplies, it is the nature of the beast for the time being.

But what do you do with your old classroom materials? Do you have used items that you just cant use anymore? You dont have to give them away or sell them at a garage sale. With the help of an educational exchange website, you can list your items for free. By selling your unwanted goods and materials, youll make some other teachers day!

Think back to when you were a new teacher, fresh out of college. How much did you spend on educational games, manipulatives, and basic classroom supplies? If you added up how much you spent, youd be shocked by the answer. Youre sitting on a goldmine with all of that stuff!

Theres no need to be shy start listing your things for free. By listing your stuff at an educational exchange website, you dont have to worry about paying listing fees you only pay a fee when an item sells. And by using an educational exchange auction site, you can feel good about passing your supplies on to another needy educational professional.

Dont undervalue your items. Someone out there would just love to get their hands on your supplies. You dont need to throw your things away or give them away technology has made it possible for you to showcase all your useful wares and materials.

By using a trustworthy educational auction house, you can easily set up your account and post pictures of your items. On your next break, take a day to fish out your old stuff.

You can also opt to make money as an affiliate, which involves referring others to the educational exchange site. Better yet, work as a trade assistant and sell items for other people, and take a percentage of the sale. Your options for making money are only limited by your imagination.

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Legal Copyright Eligibility For Copyright Protection

There are many laws that protect people in the world. Some of these laws are meant to protect rights covered under the Bill of Rights, and other rights are meant to protect the things we create. The eligibility for copyright protection is extended to anyone who is able to create something that is tangible.

There are international laws that provide copyright protection, and the laws for people living in the United States are covered under the doctrine of 17 USCA Section 102(a). The eligibility for copyright protection is clearly outlined in this document and business owners would fare well to spend a little bit of time reading through this doctrine because it may keep someone else from stealing the royalties of your work.

The eligibility for copyright protection extends to any tangible thought that is applied to paper. If it is still in your mind or in the development process where the idea has not been put down on paper or some other solid form, then the eligibility for copyright protection will not apply to it. Some people expect this to apply and are sorely disappointed when they are turned down at the copyright registration office.

If you want to create a novel or other literary work, then it would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection. Perhaps you are a photographer or a tourist who captured an exquisite photo of an event that is a once-in-a-life time experience. Since you placed yourself at great risk taking the photograph, you want to register the photo and copyright it so that other people can not make money from it without your approval. That photograph falls under the eligibility for copyright protection.

If you wanted to create a description of the photograph, then that description would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection as long as it is written down. The information can be stored on any means that you like such as compact disk, a computer or included as a caption underneath the picture and framed. All methods used to create the description fall under the eligibility for copyright protection.

Although a sculpture would not be considered a written work, it is still a method of expression that has a solid and tangible form to it. The sculpture falls under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. No further documentation is really necessary. It is real and can be held. Therefore, it is protected by copyright from the second it is created. That fact should spur the creative juices in many people who were unaware of what is covered under copyright protection.

If you have only an idea to reflect on, then that idea does not fall under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. The idea might be covered under a confidentiality agreement if you hire someone to take your idea and develop a product description from it, or content for your business website. When the idea becomes a mode for expression, then it maintains eligibility for copyright protection.

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Importance Of Civil Services And Life Of An Ias Officer

Civil Services are the Backbone of System of India. They are the Pillars of Country’s Legal System as Civil services Officers take career of Particular Departments of the Civil Framework of the Country. There are Two All India Civil Services named – Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and Indian Foreign Service (IFS). They hold an inexplicable charm as a career.

There are many professions which are lucrative and prestigious that Includes engineering, management, Medical and the Information Technology sector. But no one can match the status of civil services which command a respect and Satisfaction like no other. Even the near and dear ones of Civil Servants are too brim with pride when they refer to the “IAS” man or woman in their family. The IFS officers’ family members also of course, enjoy every bit of their life, with plum postings all over the world.

The reasons for such Respect, honor and satisfaction are many that Includes an IAS Officer’s Involvement in Important Civil and Government Body Decisions. Being a part of decision-making that impacts lives of large number of people and the opportunities to serve people in different sectors makes IAS And other Civil services Dream Job for many.

Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers handle all affairs of the government. And thus their work for Civil framework of the Country affects all aspects of modern life Including environment, education, health, agriculture, law and order, defense, foreign affairs, social welfare and taxation. In Short, it is the job of an IAS officer to look after civil administration and be involved with policy-making at all levels.

Thus IAS Is an Important Part of over-all framework of the Country and that statement undoubtedly justifies the Amount of Competition that exists in Civil service exam Conducted every year by UPSC to give the nation A fresh batch of Young and Dedicated Civil servants that’ll manage the steel frame of the Country.

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Manifesting Techniques To Help Use The Law Of Attraction

The “Wallet Game” is another of the manifesting techniques that helps you get used to dealing with money, being comfortable with it and releasing resistance you might feel towards having it!

Too often, even without realizing it, people think about the lack of money rather thinking about abundance. The Wallet Game attunes you to the Law of Abundance and attracting money rather than rejecting it or pushing it away.

It is a very simple exercise. Get a couple or more of the highest denomination notes you can, $100 or 50 or equivalent, and put them in your wallet or purse. Keep it there.

If you don’t have a lot of money you may have to empty your account or raid savings to do this, but if you are not used to having money then this is a really good exercise to do. Whenever you touch your purse or wallet remember it is there. Feel good about having it, and feel empowered by it.

Now, throughout the day look at all the things that money could buy that you would like to have. What could you buy with $200 – a decent new camera, clothes, really expensive meal…

When you see something remind yourself that you have enough money to buy it if you so chose.

Not Just Pretending – Like all manifesting techniques the effect of this over an extended period is to increase your positive vibration. – get you into a millionaire mindset. That does not mean going on a reckless spending spree in reality, but you can spend the money in your wallet mentally over and over without any repercussions.

You might mentally spend it 20 or 30 times, which would give you the same feeling as though you were spending five or six thousand dollars!

Your feeling of well-being around finances will certainly increase. And as it does you will find attracting money becomes much easier.

Watch out for how it affects all areas of your financial life far more effectively than attending wealth seminars. Your money will seem to go further and unexpected amounts show up and some thing you want will manifest even without money.

The great thing is that you are not even having to pretend!

Because you have the money in your pocket you could actually buy these things. You have the means, there is no doubt.

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seattle maternity leave employment attorney

The Family and Medical Leave Act is a law requiring covered employers to provide employees job-protected unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. These reasons include personal or family illness, military service, family military leave, pregnancy, adoption, or the foster care placement of a child. The Family and Medical Leave Act requires larger employers to provide unpaid leave to certain workers. This law recognizes the growing needs of balancing family, work, and obligations, and promises numerous protections to workers. This law protects your job during a 12 weeks leave for following reasons- – To care for a new child – To care for a seriously ill family member – To recover from a worker’s own serious illness – To care for an injured service member in the family – To address qualifying exigencies arising out of a family member’s deployment. At work station normally we had many complaints against employer such as- – I am being discriminated against because of my sexual orientation. – I was fired after becoming pregnant – My boss passed me up for a promotion because of my race or religion. – My employer is not paying me for overtime. – I am owed back pay but my employer denies it. – I am not being paid for mandatory training. – I am not being paid for mandatory training. – My employer is sexually harassing me. – After returning from medical leave I was demoted. – I earned commissions that I was never given. To get out of all above problems, we have now family and medical leave act. If you believe that you are being discriminated against or that your employer is withholding wages there is something you can do. Too many times employees try to wait out a problem at work. If so then you need a dedicated team of attorneys who can protect your civil rights. A family medical leave act attorney can represent you very well. You should contact a team who deals in Family medical leave act attorney, unpaid wages lawyers seattle, sex discrimination employment attorney seattle, sex discrimination employment lawyer seattle, seattle race discrimination employment attorney, seattle race discrimination employment lawyer, seattle maternity leave employment attorney and seattle maternity leave employment lawyer.

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